Bryman, A. The Motivational Effects of Charismatic Leadership: A Self-Concept Based Theory. Interactional Leadership Theories (1970-Present) The basic premise of interactional theory is that leadership behaviour is generally determined by the relationship between the leaders personality and the specific situation. Kirkpatrick, S. and Locke, E. (1991). American Sociological Review, 37(2), p.117. A summary of these theories is shown in table 1 (Appendix 1). Study for free with our range of university lectures! You can view samples of our professional work here. Leadership have different definitions given by different authors and practitioners, but generally it is relationship in which the behaviour or actions of people are influenced by one person. No plagiarism, guaranteed! A leader is crucial to the success of every team. Leader-member Exchange and Creative Work Involvement: The Importance of Knowledge Sharing. Retrieved from http://www.regent.edu, Liden, R.C., Wayne, S.J., Liao, C., & Meuser, J.D. The learner had to identify and compare four theories of leadership.The theories selected to analyze by the learner are contingency, behavioral, transformation, and transactional. (2014). As interest in the psychology of leadership has increased over the last 100 years, a number of different leadership theories have been introduced to explain exactly how and why certain people become great leaders. Other behavioural leadership theories include path-goal theory, leadership substitutes theory and normative contingency theory (McClesky, 2014). Essay on Leadership # Theories of Leadership (Essay 5) Some of the popular theories of leadership are: (i) Trait Theories: Trait is the personal quality of an individual. We've received widespread press coverage since 2003, Your UKEssays purchase is secure and we're rated 4.4/5 on reviews.co.uk. A review of the relationships between personality and performance in small groups. Vroom and Jago (2007) refer to heroic concepts of leadership which they argue emerged with the great man theory of history whereby major historical events were assumed to be the work of great men with vision and genius. Leadership and Organizational Performance: A Study of Large Corporations. Registered Data Controller No: Z1821391. Leadership in organizations. A quantitative review of the relationship between individual differences and leader effectiveness. It is clear, as shown in figure 1 below, that different researchers have proposed different traits and there is no consistency in trait theories. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 70(1), pp.19-34. Get your paperback, digital, or audio copy of my latest book from all major book stores. Summarize the Conclusions of Trait Theories of Leadership Leadership is the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of a vision or set of goals. In order to inspire, innovative, and produce creativity within an organization, leaders should be aware and mindful of their followers’ perception of them. A person becomes a leader because of his personal qualities. Table 1 : Summary of main leadership theories (Storey, 2004). Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press. : Gulf Pub. Evolution of situational leadership theory: A critical review. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), pp.285-305. Emotional intelligence and leadership. Business (2013). It is also interesting to note that despite the vivid difference between culture and leadership, the organization has been able to merge both in so many areas. Relationship-Based Approach to Leadership: Development and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of Leadership over 25 Years: Applying a Multi-Level Multi-Domain Perspective. The resulting lists of traits are then compared to those of potential leaders to assess their likelihood of success or failure. According to Eckmann (2005: 4), Carlyle’s argument was that heroes shape history through “the vision of their intellect, the beauty of their art, the prowess of their leadership and, most important, their divine inspiration.” Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) state that great man theories were based on the assumption that leadership qualities were inherited, particularly by upper class men. Lieberson, S. and O’Connor, J. Theory and practice of leadership. Hoffman, B., Woehr, D., Maldagen-Youngjohn, R. and Lyons, B. The situational leader. According to Gill (2011) contingency theories suggest there is no one best way of leadership because successful leaders use different styles depending on the nature of the situation and the followers. American Psychologist, 62(1), pp.17-24. Fiedler’s (1967) two factor model divides leaders into relationship motivated and task motivated groups and suggests that leaders should be placed in the situation which is favourable to their style. Trait theory. This researcher also claims that empirical studies have produced mixed results on the effectiveness of the Grid and argues that there is need to have information on other variables such as management and organisation change programs before definitive conclusions can be made on the effectiveness of the model. Figure 2: Management Grid (source: http://cisvu.net/mod/page/view.php?id=1109). New York: Harper & Row. Conclusion There are many theories on leadership and even within these theories, there are always variables that must be considered. Blake, R. and Mouton, J. Situational Leadership(R) After 25 Years: A Retrospective. Situational leadership and persons with disabilities. Judge, Piccolo and Kosalka (2009) state that reviewers have labelled the approach as too simplistic, futile, dangerous and a product of self-delusion. Center for Leadership Studies.House, R. and Aditya, R. (1997). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), pp.9-32. Avolio, B., & Gardner, W. (2005). These are directing, coaching, supporting, and delegating. Katz, D. and Kahn, R. (1978). Other researchers have also argued that trait theories have failed to consider situational nature of leadership (Zaccaro, 2007; Vroom and Jago, 2007). Do you have a 2:1 degree or higher? Yukl (1999) also states that weaknesses of transformational leadership theory includes ambiguous constructs, narrow focus on dyadic processes, omission of some relevant behaviours, insufficient specification of limiting conditions and a bias towards heroic conceptions of leadership. Authentic leadership: A self, leader, and spiritual identity perspective. Behavioural Theory After trait theory, there was a big jump to the behavioural theory; it assumes that leadership can be learned, not intrinsic. Trait-based perspectives of leadership. Leadership: Theory and practice (6th ed.). ‘’The process of influencing others to understand an… Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(4), pp.765-780. The combination of these variables results in different styles of management as shown in figure 2 below. Journal of Management. Leadership Quarterly, 6, 219-247. doi: 10.1016/1048-9843(95)90036-5, Hassanzadeh, J. F. (2014). Derue, D., Nahrgang, J., Wellman, N. and Humphrey, S. (2011). London: Routledge. The research is structured as follows: section one presents theories focusing on leader characteristics or traits including great man theory and trait theory; section two presents theories based on leader behaviour and situational models and section three presents the new leadership theories including transformational and transactional theories. Reddin called The 3-D Management Style Theory. As the employees gain ability and become more confident, the leader will adopt a participating and delegating style. Journal of Leadership and Organization Studies, 9(2), 57-64. doi: 10.1177/107179190200900205. Kuhnert, K. and Lewis, P. (1987). Academy of Management Review, 12(4), pp.648-657. Understanding leadership style can help a company build a foundation that can lead to improved productivity, employee retention, and improved employee relations. doi:10.1177/0149206307308913, Graeff, C. L. (1997). Contingency theories of leadership explain the factors on which it has to depend to produce best performance; these factors could be either internal or external. Disclaimer: This work has been submitted by a university student. Leadership theories: Considering leadership reveals school of thought giving different leadership theories such as Great Man theory, trait theory, behaviourist theory, situational leadership theory, contingency theory, transactional theory and transformational theory. We're here to answer any questions you have about our services. Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. Each of these theories focuses on building trust through a mutually beneficial relationship between leaders and followers. Theories: • System theory, institutional theory, discourse analysis, social identity theory, etc. (1995). Authentic Leadership: Development and Validation of a Theory-Based Measure†. Work, 29(4), 351-356. Storey (2004) identifies the main theories as trait theory, behavioural theories, situational and contingency theories, exchange and path-goal models, new leadership (charismatic and transformational theories), constructivist theory, leadership with learning and post-charismatic and post-transformational theories. Judge, T., Piccolo, R. and Kosalka, T. (2009). This research presents an analysis of the proponents and criticisms of the main leadership theories. Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991) state that no traits are universally associated with effective leadership and argue that situational factors are also influential. Looking for a flexible role? According to Kirkpatrick and Locke (1991), great man leadership theories were popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The trait model of leadership is based on the characteristics of many leaders - both successful and unsuccessful - and is used to predict leadership effectiveness. New York: Free Press. New patterns of management. ), Handbook of leadership theory and practice (pp. (1985). American Psychologist, 62(1), pp.6-16. Shamir, B., House, R. and Arthur, M. (1993). CONCLUSION A review of leadership theories shows a progression from great man and trait theories to new leadership theories including transformation and transaction theories. These researchers state that while earlier theories focused on leader/follower exchange relationships, providing direction, support and reinforcement behaviours, charismatic theories emphasise symbolic leader behaviour, visionary and inspirational messages, non verbal communication and appeal to ideological values. Retrieved from, Fred O. Walumbwa, Bruce J. Avolio, William L. Gardner, Tara S. Wernsing, and Suzanne J. Peterson. I designed and wrote this group of modules in response to feedback from users of this site and our sister sites. Summary of Theories Situational leadership, developed by professor Paul Hersey and author and consultant Ken Blanchard. Contingency theory, … Kilmann and Thomas (1977) have also criticised the validity and reliability of instruments used in behavioural theories and Vroom and Jago (2007: 19) also state that behavioural models advocated by the Ohio State University and the University of Michigan have never produced “a solid body of scientific evidence sufficient to guide practice.” Additionally, these researchers also state that these theories neglected the significance of situational variables and their impacts on leadership behaviour. Leadership and organizations. Their approach was based off of a 1967 article by W.J. Conclusion The four leadership theories identified in this essay – trait, behavioral, contingency, and transformational can be represented as an effective and efficient pathway in leadership to reach the transformational style of leadership. In other words, these theories asserted that great men were born, not made (Hoffman et al., 2011). Psychological Bulletin, 56(4), pp.241-270. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), pp.76-93. Storey, J. Kunhert and Lewis (1987) state that Bass’s (1985) model of transactional and transformation leadership is based on the model developed by Burns (1978) and argue that this model lacks an explanation of the internal processes which lead to the development of the actions of transformational and transactional leaders, in other words, neither Burns (1978) or Bass (1985) has “provided a framework for understanding the motivational states or personality differences that give rise to these two types of leadership” (Kunhert and Lewis, 1987: 648). Bass (1999) states that this exchange may take the form of the leader clarifying through direction or participation what the follower needs to do in order to be rewarded for the effort (contingency reward) or taking an active or passive role in monitoring and correcting follower performance. Lorsch (2010) also states that contingency theories assume that one type of leadership can fit all situations and this is not plausible, for instance, the leader of an army platoon would have different leadership challenges than a sales manager or a CEO or even a senior partner in a law firm. Authentic leadership has promoted the notion that leaders should be self-aware, honest, and transparent. These leadership theories are situational leadership, trait theory and transformational leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(2), pp.347-381. Hoffman et al (2011: 349) argue that great man theories fell out of favour “amid questions as to the evidentiary basis underlying disposition-leadership associations”. Reference this. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), pp.855-875. Proponents of these theories argue that leaders possess traits or characteristics that make them different from other people and give them leadership advantage. The same concept applies to communities, companiesCorporate StructureCorporate structure refers to the organizati… Academy of Management Journal, 57, 1434-1452. doi:10.5465/amj.2013.0034, McCleskey, J. Transactional versus transformational leadership: An analysis of the MLQ. Each theory has its own contributions, limitations, assumptions, and frame work of analysis. Individual consideration viewed at multiple levels of analysis: A multi-level framework for examining the diffusion of transformational leadership. (1978). Personnel Psychology, 64(1), pp.7-52, Eckmann, H. (2005). Bass (1985, 1991) presents a model of transformation and transaction leadership which has three dimensions of transactional leadership, namely, contingent reward, management by exception (active) and management by exception passive) and four dimensions for transformation leadership, namely, charisma , inspiration, intellectual stimulation and individualised consideration. Rafferty, A. and Griffin, M. (2004). Leader-member exchange theories suggest that a mutual exchange between leader and follower can produce loyal and committed relationships. According to Storey (2004), the 1980’s saw the development of new leadership theories promoting the concept of transformation, visionary, charismatic and inspirational leadership. London: SAGE. Behavioural Theory of Leadership: As per this theory, a particular behaviour of a leader provides a … Free resources to assist you with your university studies! The theories of leadership are1. Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. Leadership: current theories , research, and future directions. What exactly makes a great leader? Figure 3: Situational leadership model (Blanchard, Zigarmi and Nelson, 1993: 26). Lorsch, J. W. (2010). London: Routledge. investigation of leadership as a conception, e.g. The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?. Leadership in organizations. Leadership Theories: The Conclusion These are some of the main leadership theories being used in the corporate world today. Two most important and prominent categorization of leadership theories are contingency and situational theories. Leadership: do traits matter?. New York: Wiley. Another criticism of behavioural theories is that they do not offer guidance on what constitutes effective leadership in different situations (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano and Dennison, 2003). 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